Everything You Need To Know About Industrial Radiography - Uni X-ray (2022)

Radiography is quite popular in the field of medicine. It is used for a wide range of applications. However, it is also used for industrial applications. This is what we call industrial radiography. In this guide, we are going to highlight everything that you should know about industrial radiography.

With industrial radiography, you can quickly analyze industrial components. It is a form of non-destructive testing (NDT). With industrial radiography, you can find flaws such as cracks in various industrial components without having to perform any serious damage to them.

What is Industrial Radiography?

Industrial radiography is a non-destructive testing method that enables industrial components and industrial machinery to be examined without the need of being taken apart. It is very good for finding cracks, flaws, fractures in industrial parts such as industrial belts, industrial fasteners, industrial gearbox, industrial bearings, etc.Everything You Need To Know About Industrial Radiography - Uni X-ray (1)

Industrial radiography is mainly used in industrial applications. This is why it is always referred to as a branch of X-ray that specializes in industrial activities and not medical-related applications.

Industrial radiography is done mainly with industrial X-ray machines. Industrial X-ray machines are available in different sizes and capacities. These X-ray machines are powerful enough to emit industrial X-rays that can come in direct contact with industrial parts.

Industrial radiography is done mainly with industrial X-ray machines. Industrial X-ray machines are available in different sizes and capacities.

These X-ray machines are powerful enough to emit industrial X-rays that can come in direct contact with industrial parts without causing any harm. They also feature high doses of radiation.

Components of Industrial Radiography

Industrial radiography is executed and with the help of the following set of tools and equipment:

– X-ray Generators

Everything You Need To Know About Industrial Radiography - Uni X-ray (2)

Industrial X-ray generators or industrial radiography industrial machines are the sources of industrial X-rays.

These industrial radiography industrial machines are also referred to as industrial X-ray generators because they generate industrial x-rays that can be used in industrial radiography.

They usually come with a control panel and industrial photoelectric detectors. Industrial radiographers use these industrial tools for conducting tests on their industrial components or products.

– High Voltage Generator

Everything You Need To Know About Industrial Radiography - Uni X-ray (3)

This is a machine that generates and supplies electric power to the industrial X-ray machine which will help it function appropriately.

The high voltage generator sends positive electrical charges from one circuit to another within the X-ray machine. This will then lead to high voltage pulses being applied across the electrical terminals of industrial X-ray tubes.

This industrial tool will then produce X-rays produced during the industrial radiography process.

These industrial tools can be used for industrial radiography because they can produce industrial X-rays that do not generate harmful radiation. The industrial x-rays produced by these industrial radiography industrial machines are very high in energy and therefore, are capable of penetrating various objects such as a component or part of an object and exposing the internal structures which may contain cracks and faults.

– Industrial Flat Panel Detector

Everything You Need To Know About Industrial Radiography - Uni X-ray (4)

(Video) How do X-Rays Work?

This is an important element of industrial radiography equipment. This is a device that helps in collecting, converting, measuring, and displaying industrial X-rays produced during the industrial radiography process.

As mentioned above, these detectors are usually placed directly on top of the industrial film or industrial X-ray image as it is being exposed.

The collected industrial X-rays are then converted by this machine into signals which can then be interpreted using specialized software. This enables you to view an image of what was captured on industrial radiography industrial machines through industrial photoelectric detectors.

– Industrial Radiation Protection Equipment

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To prevent unnecessary injuries; industrial radiation protection equipment can be worn by all people taking part in industrial radiography procedures. It is protective equipment during these processes.

There are different types of industrial protection equipment available. Each type has the ability to protect workers from harmful rays emitted from industrial radiography machines or other kinds of related industrial tools.

– Processing Software

This component is common for industrial digital radiography. Computer and specialized software are used for industrial radiography and industrial machines to produce industrial images and industrial x-rays.

Industrial radiography software will convert the raw industrial data from the industrial X-ray generators into readable industrial images that can be presented and viewed during other industrial testing activities.

Methods of Industrial Radiography

There are different types and techniques of industrial radiography. These are:

– Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT)

This type of industrial radiography involves directing an ultra-reliable industrial gamma source towards industrial parts/components. It is able to obtain industrial images of industrial components with high levels of industrial radiographic accuracy.

Everything You Need To Know About Industrial Radiography - Uni X-ray (6)

(Source from the Internet)

Some of the areas in which this technique is used include industrial manufacturing, industrial inspection/auditing and industrial forensics/security.

Industrial management uses industrial SPECT industrial radiography in conducting industrial quality control to ensure that industrial parts meet the required industrial standards for optimal industrial performance.

Industrial inspectors who use this radiographic technique are able to detect some of the most common industrial defects such as surface pits/holes and corrosion pitting.

– Real-Time Radiography(RTR)

Real-time industrial radiography is a type of industrial radiography that makes use of industrial x-rays. These rays are directed towards industrial objects/industrial components to obtain industrial images with high levels of industrial detail.

Concerning industrial imaging techniques, real-time industrial radiography is an approach that involves real-time exposure (as opposed to delayed industrial imaging exposure). It also provides industrial detection and assessment functionality.

Everything You Need To Know About Industrial Radiography - Uni X-ray (7)

Industrial X-ray tomography has been applied in industrial RTR. This involves using industrial gamma beams at industrial angles to obtain a series of industrial data about each industrial component being inspected. Damages on industrial products may be repaired before they become big problems for industries. Industrial RTR can also be used to detect other types of industrial flaws that do not necessarily lead to product failure but that could cause injuries to employees or loss of production.

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– Computed Radiography

Everything You Need To Know About Industrial Radiography - Uni X-ray (8)

This industrial radiography method involves industrial x-rays being directed at industrial components to obtain industrial images with industrial imaging sensors.

Industrial computed radiography is also referred to as industrial digital imaging technique or industrial computed tomography.

Some industrial applications of computed radiography include industrial assembly inspection, industrial welding inspection, industrial part inspection and industrial reverse engineering.

– Industrial Digital Radiography

This is done by using industrial digital sensors that can capture all the industrial X-rays produced during the industrial radiography process.

Unlike conventional methods, industrial digital radiography allows you to convert such signals into visual and quantitative data which then becomes easier for interpretation and analysis.

Industrial digital radiography generates data that are usually offered as industrial digital images that can be presented, interpreted, and analyzed easily.

This form of radiography is better and more convenient than traditional industrial radiography.

Everything You Need To Know About Industrial Radiography - Uni X-ray (9)

(Source from the Internet)

Some application areas include industrial industrial assembly inspection, industrial weld inspection and industrial part inspection. Digital industrial radiography helps ensure the correct parts are assembled in industrial assembly and that there are no defects in industrial parts prior to assembling the final product.

Digital industrial radiography is also used for industrial reverse engineering of products.

Applications of Industrial Radiography

– Inspection of Welding Seams

Everything You Need To Know About Industrial Radiography - Uni X-ray (10)

Industrial radiography is also used to look at industrial welding seams to determine whether they meet the required industrial standards. Industrial radiography can be used for all types of industrial welds and it does not matter whether you are using electrical arc welding or flash butt welding.

Industrial radiography can be used in any industrial workplace where welds are present on industrial equipment. The industrial radiogram will show the technician or inspector how well the industrial weld was done and whether there were any problems with it or if necessary, how to address them.

– Rusting Detection

Everything You Need To Know About Industrial Radiography - Uni X-ray (11)

Industrial radiography can also detect areas that have started rusting thus alerting engineers who may then take measures meant to save parts of a machine before it deteriorates and before unnecessary industrial repairs are carried out.

– Industrial Radiography for Security

Everything You Need To Know About Industrial Radiography - Uni X-ray (12)

The industrial radiogram takes a picture of industrial components that may be hidden inside industrial machinery. This will allow the technician to see if there are any parts of an industrial machine that someone has tried to remove without authorization.


Security X-ray machines can also be used in airports, at border checkpoints as well as on cargo ships and boats. All this is done to make sure that no one has smuggled anything into the country or out from it through these means.

– Industrial Radiography for Installation

Industrial radiography can be used during the installation process to show that all parts have been installed properly into necessary industrial equipment.

The industrial X-ray is useful in this situation because it can be used to check whether there are any problems with part placement. If anything has been installed improperly thus alert technicians who will then fix it before moving on to another step in the installation process.

– Maintenance

Industrial radiography is very important for maintenance workers who use industrial radiography to inspect industrial equipment they intend on repairing for defects.

By taking industrial X-rays the industrial radiographer can show technicians what is wrong with industrial machinery that was sent for industrial repairs.

This allows them to come up with a better solution than just using replacement parts when in reality other problems are preventing an industrial piece of machinery from functioning well again.

Industrial radiography also prevents workmen from sending industrial equipment back to workshops or factories if no repair is needed. This wastes time and money both of which are very important especially in the industrial world.

Safety of Industrial Radiography

Everything You Need To Know About Industrial Radiography - Uni X-ray (13)

How is safety guaranteed in industrial radiography? Industrial radiography industrial radiation industrial x-ray industrial exposure industrial safety industrial hazards.

For proper industrial radiography, all industrial radiographic processes are operated under a safe industrial routine. Several aspects of the use of industrial radiography must be considered for its’ implementation in the work environment:

Industrial radiographers should have been certified by an appropriate national authority and have achieved at least a basic training level in industrial radiography.

In addition to their expertise, they also should demonstrate a comprehensive knowledge of the fundamentals of health protection. This includes an understanding of potential risks related to radiation.

Industrial radiographers are required to wear industrial protective wear, industrial exposure safety industrial garments, and industrial radiography industrial suits.

Industrial instruments shall be calibrated in accordance with national industrial standards. Other adequate procedures are applied to ensure that the industrial radiographic equipment is operating within an acceptable industrial level of accuracy.

Industrial environmental control must maintain a minimum radiation protection standard. This includes limiting the time-weighted average (TWA) exposure for industrial radiographers to <0.1 mSv per month while they are working in the industrial radiography environment.

This will apply only when compliance with occupational exposure limits is demonstrated by monitoring workers’ individual doses after implementation of all provisions of this section and industry best practices.”

Also, ensure that you use quality and certified industrial radiography machines for industrial radiography procedures.

Industrial Radiography Industrial Training

Industrial radiographers must be trained in industrial safety and industrial health protection. During the industrial radiographic training, industrial radiographers are required to produce a radiation exposure report that includes actual measurements of their industrial cumulative radiation exposures.

The supervisor must review this report and make modifications to the industrial routine if necessary. This will ensure that industrial radiographers do not exceed the occupational limit for radiation workers in accordance with federal regulation 10 CFR part 20.

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The objective of industrial radiological protection is to prevent industrial injury or disease arising from individuals’ exposure to ionizing and non-ionizing radiation.

Buy Quality Industrial Radiography Equipment

Would you like to get the best results from industrial radiography? Consider buying the best equipment for the job.

Most industrial radiography equipment is designed to be used in harsh environments and industrial settings. They have been built specifically for industrial use, therefore they can resist corrosion as well as withstand wear and tear.

Industrial radiography equipment comes with many valuable features that will enhance your industrial radiography project.

The industrial radiography instruments you choose can make the process easier or more difficult for you.

There are some things that you should know before buying an industrial radiography instrument:

  • Power source
  • Size of the industrial radiograph
  • Instrument controls and features
  • Key components such as a timer or remote control device

For your peace of mind, ensure that you buy from reputable industrial radiography equipment suppliers and manufacturers. You can save money by buying industrial radiography equipment online, but be careful of the type of industrial radiography equipment you buy.

Ask what sort of industrial radiography projects the industrial radiography instruments are used for in real-life situations. Rather than just reading product descriptions, get answers from people who know industrial radiography inside out.

The best way to do this is to speak with industrial technologists working in industries where industrial radiographs are commonly used such as construction or building maintenance departments, manufacturing facilities, and hospitals.

Once you speak with them, visit their industrial radiography lab to see industrial radiographic equipment in action.

Not only will you get an idea of industrial radiography systems that they are currently using, but you will also learn how industrial radiography is done by various industrial technologists.

Related Industrial Radiography Equipments Recommended:

➤ X-ray machine for Electronics

➤ X-ray machine for Auto Parts

➤ X-ray Machine for Welding

➤ X-ray Machine for Lithium Battery

➤ X-ray Machine for Security

UNI X-ray: Reliable Industrial Radiography Machine Manufacturers in China

At UNI X-ray, industrial radiography machines are our passion. Our industrial radiography equipment encompasses a wide array of industrial X-ray machine types and configurations suitable for countless industrial applications.

Every industrial radiography machine we manufacture is created as an industrial-grade diagnostic tool with no exceptions. UNI X-ray also provides a variety of customer service channels including live chat, phone calls, or email to ensure that you can get the information you need at your fingertips whenever you need it.

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At UNI X-ray, we strive to go above and beyond when it comes to industrial radiographic equipment. To see what else we offer contact us today!


What is the 15 rule in radiography? ›

A 15% increase in kVp has the same effect as doubling the mAs. A 15% decrease in kVp has the same effect as decreasing the mAs by half. Increasing the kVp by 15% increases the exposure to the IR, unless the mAs is decreased.

What are the two types of industrial radiography? ›

X-ray and gamma ray industrial radiography devices are different and used for different purposes.

What are the 3 types of X-rays? ›

There are several types of x-ray:
  • plain radiography, or plain x-ray.
  • computed tomography, known as CT scanning.
  • fluoroscopy — which produces moving images of an organ.
  • mammography — an x-ray of the breasts.
  • angiography — an x-ray of the blood vessels.

Which rays are used in radiography? ›

During a radiographic procedure, an x-ray beam is passed through the body. A portion of the x-rays are absorbed or scattered by the internal structure and the remaining x-ray pattern is transmitted to a detector so that an image may be recorded for later evaluation.

What is the 4 cm rule in radiography? ›

For every 4 cm increase in patient thickness requires a doubling of exposure (time) in order to achieve an image of equal density.

What is kVp and mAs? ›

* kVp: the power and strength of the x-ray beam (quality of the x-rays). * mAs: the number of x-ray photons produced by the x-ray tube at the setting selected (quantity of x-rays). * time: how long the exposure lasts. Understanding Technique. kVp stands for kilovoltage peak.

Where is industrial radiography used? ›

Industrial radiography has two primary uses: Manufacturers use industrial radiography to look for defects inside materials they use. Inspectors use industrial radiography to look for defects in industrial assets, in order to ensure they are safe to use and comply with mandated inspection requirements.

What are the safety aspects of industrial radiography? ›

Radiation Safety in Industrial Radiography
  • Assessment of Pipe Wall Thickness Radiation Technique. ...
  • Inspection Techniques for Detecting Corrosion Under Insulation. ...
  • Uncertainty in Flaw Sizing by Radiography Method - A Primer Plus. ...
  • Tangential Radiography Technique for Special Weld Joints Configuration.

When did industrial radiography start? ›

Radiography started in 1895 with the discovery of X-rays (later also called Röntgen rays after the man who first described their properties in detail), a type of electromagnetic radiation.

What are the 3 basic radiation safety principles? ›

ALARA means avoiding exposure to radiation that does not have a direct benefit to you, even if the dose is small. To do this, you can use three basic protective measures in radiation safety: time, distance, and shielding.

What is the hazards of radiography? ›

While X-rays are linked to a slightly increased risk of cancer, there is an extremely low risk of short-term side effects. Exposure to high radiation levels can have a range of effects, such as vomiting, bleeding, fainting, hair loss, and the loss of skin and hair.

What is the minimum age in years at which a person may perform radiography? ›

Q.What is the minimum age in years at which a person may perform radiography :
Answer» b. 18
1 more row

What are the sources of radiation used in industrial radiography? ›

The most commonly used sources are iridium-192 and cobalt- 60. Iridium-192 emits gamma rays with a range of energies up to 820 keV (averaging 380 keV) and cobalt-60 emits two gamma rays, one at 1.173 MeV and one at 1.333 MeV.

What is the 15 percent rule? ›

One of these was “the 15 percent rule”. This gave researchers the chance to spend up to 15 percent of their time developing innovative ideas they believed they could turn into commercial successes.

What is the 10 kVp rule? ›

A longstanding 'rule of thumb' suggests that increasing kVp by 10 whilst halving the time gives similar perceptual image quality when compared to the original exposure factors.

What is the reciprocity law in radiography? ›

The reciprocity law constitutes one of the fundamental rules of photography and of radiography. It states that the quality of a series of photographic or radiographic films will be uniformly constant if the exposure times with which the films are made vary reciprocally with the intensities of the exposing radiation.

What are the four image quality factors of a radiograph? ›

The important components of the radiographic image quality include contrast, dynamic range, spatial resolution, noise, and artifacts.

What kVp means? ›

Kilovoltage peak (kVp) is the peak potential applied to the x-ray tube, which accelerates electrons from the cathode to the anode in radiography or computed tomography. Tube voltage, in turn, determines the quantity and quality of the photons generated.

How is kVp calculated? ›

X-Ray MATH [Exposure Time Calculator] - YouTube

How is exposure time calculated in radiography? ›

The formula to calculate the time for the Radiographic film exposure in minutes is given below.
  1. Here, FF: is Film Factor.
  2. SFD: Source to film distance.
  3. RHM: Rotegen per hour at 1 meter for the source being used.
  4. Current Activity (A) of the Source = Ao/ 2e
  5. Similar Posts:
Oct 13, 2021

What causes a blurry xray? ›

Light produced by absorbed x-rays in a screen produces a blurred image because the light diffuses before being absorbed by a film.

What is Sid in radiology? ›

The source image receptor distance (SID), is the distance of the tube from the image receptor, affecting magnification. The greater the SID, the less magnification the image will suffer.

What is radiographic sharpness? ›

Radiographic sharpness means the distinctness or perceptibility of the boundary or edge of the structure in a mammogram.

Digital X-rays cuts out the need for using films when producing X-ray images. Instead, the whole process is digitized. These entail core activities such as creation, editing, storage and transfer of the films.

Instead, the whole process is digitized.. Today, we have computer radiography and digital radiography systems that are used in different facilities.. This invention formed the basis of the modern world’s computer radiography systems.. Digital radiography uses flat panel detectors to transform the X-rays into digital images for processing.. Image generation Image processing Image archiving Image presentation. Flat-panel detectors, commonly known as digital detector arrays (DDAs), are designed to deliver high-quality digital images compared to conventional imaging equipment or computed X-ray systems.. The image below gives a summary of how the X-ray machine works. Since X-ray imaging is usually used in sensitive application areas, we will always wish to get quality output from the process.. Digital X-ray machines are not sophisticated machines.. At Unixray, we design and manufacture digital X-ray machines for different applications.. Whether you are in the medical or manufacturing fields and looking for digital radiography systems, we are the people you should contact.

Receive five helpful tips on how to succeed within x-ray tech school. Learn from an experienced x-ray tech ( Radiographer) on how you can succeed

Well before you can shoot X-rays at people for a living, you first have to go to a certified x-ray tech school or radiography program, to use the common vernacular.. Regardless of what program you decide to go to, one thing remains the same, X-RAY SCHOOL IS HARD!. Here is a list of some things that you will have to learn while in x-ray tech school.. The components of the x-ray tube How the x-ray circuit works Radiation protection Radiation biology Math, math, and more math digital radiography Fluoroscopy (tube, table, and monitor) How to position the patient for their exams (remember 206 bones) Law and ethics related to healthcare Drugs and their interactions Patient’s vital signs Pathology X-ray image critique and tons more. Yes, to CRUSH x-ray tech school you are going to have to be 100% focused on school.. Given the degree of information, you are going to have to learn while in radiography school, implementing a good study habit can make the difference between becoming an x-ray tech or being an x-ray tech school drop out.. When I was in x-ray tech school, I was the flashcard king!. Out of all the tips mentioned, if you are not passionate about helping people, then you will not make it through x-ray school, guaranteed.. X-ray tech school and all the drama associated with it is just too hard.. To sum up, radiography school is going to kick your butt so prepare to have your life changes, find some good study habits, start eating healthy, and get passionate!

What are the most important radiology room requirements? Winthrop Hospital shares its insights to meet changing imaging requirements.

These procedures require numerous line placements and ideally a room with a CT in it so patients don’t have to be moved from one room to the next.. Imaging equipment drives room requirements. Instead we ask questions like, “what can we do if we don’t move the table?” and, “is there a way to replace tables and control panels?” – anything to minimize construction.. I’ve learned quite a lot about radiology room requirements during my 30-plus years as a radiology administrator.. Can we design a room that can accommodate the universal population and multiple operations?. What other special requirements, like long-length imaging, do we need to support?. Of course, the imaging equipment itself has its own set of requirements.

Start preparing today with a Radiography study guide that includes Radiography practice test questions. Raise your Radiography Test score. Guaranteed. By Mometrix.

That is the whole purpose of the Radiography Exam Secrets study guide: to give test takers the keys to understand how to succeed on the Radiography Test.. If you'd like to get the Radiography Test score you deserve, to quit worrying about whether your score on the Radiography Test is good enough, and to beat the test taking game so you can become a radiographer, then this might be the most important message you read this year.. Our comprehensive study guide for the Radiography Examination is written by our test experts, who painstakingly researched the topics and the concepts that you need to know to do your best on the Radiography Test.. Our company's name is Mometrix Test Preparation, and we have a team of standardized test researchers who have worked on developing our study guide for the Radiography Test.. If test takers were not doing well on the Radiography Test despite high intelligence, there had to be a set of secret keys to the test that would open the door of success for these test takers.. One reason some test takers do well on the day of the test is that they have made the critical connection between the material they learned and how to use the material to succeed on the Radiography Test.. Radiography Exam Secrets is our exclusive collection of the tips and the information that we have specially selected to give you the best results on the Radiography Test for the least time spent studying.. There is a lot of confusion surrounding studying for the Radiography Test, and standardized tests in general.. Bonus One Radiography Exam Practice Test Questions: Think you're ready for the Radiography test?. Test yourself using our practice test questions.. Our Radiography practice test questions give you the opportunity to test your knowledge on a set of questions.. That's why the practice test questions we include for the Radiography test include answer keys with detailed answer explanations to each question.. Our Radiography Exam Secrets study guide will teach you what you need to know, but our Study Skills bonus will show you HOW to use the information to be successful on the Radiography Test.

This content provides you with a example Radiographic Testing Procedure. This is a general and sample RT procedure and you need to modify it to meet your project specifications.

1.1 - This Procedure describes the general requirements for radiography examination (RT) according to related approved weld map for the metallic welding and casting as may be required by the specification or under which component is being designed and manufactured.. According to T.222.2, the weld ripples or weld surface irregularities on the both the inside (where accessible) and out side shall be removed by any suitable process to such a degree that the resulting radiographic testing image due to any surface irregularities cannot mask or be confused with the image of any discontinuity.. The minimum Recommended thickness limitation may be reduced when the radiography techniques are used to demonstrate that the required radiographic testing sensitivity have been obtained, by purchaser approval.. Penetrameters shall be either the whole type or the wire type and shall be manufactured and identified in accordance with the requirements or alternatives allowed in SE 142 or SE 1025 (for whole type) and SE-747 (for wire type), and appending.. IQIs shall be selected from either the same alloy material. group or grade as identified inSE-1025, or SE-747, as applicable, or from an. alloy material Group or grade with less radiation absorption than the material. being radiographed.. The thickness on which the IQI is based is the nominal single-wall. thickness plus the estimated weld reinforcement not to exceed the maximum. permitted by the referencing Code Section.. When the weld metal is of an alloy. group or grade that has a radiation attenuation that differs from the base. material, the IQI material selection shall be based on the weld metal and be in. accordance with T-276.1.. When the density limits of T-282.2 cannot be met with. one IQI and the exceptional density area is at the interface of the weld metal. and the base metal, the material selection for the additional IQIs shall be based. on the base material and is in accordance with T-276.1. In the single-wall radiographic testing technique, the. radiation passes through only one wall of the weld (material), which is viewed. for acceptance on the radiograph.. For materials and for welds in. components, a technique may be used in which the radiation passes through two. walls and only the weld (material) on the film-side wall is viewed for. acceptance on the radiograph.. When complete coverage is required for. circumferential welds (materials), a minimum of three exposures taken 120 deg. to each other shall be made.. (89 mm) or less in nominal outside diameter, a technique. may be used in which the radiation passes through two walls and the weld. (material) in both walls is viewed for acceptance on the same radiograph .For. double-wall viewing, only a source-side IQI shall be used.. (1) For welds, the radiation beam may be offset from the plane. of the weld at an angle sufficient to separate the images of the source-side. and film-side portions of the weld so that there is no overlap of the areas to. be interpreted.. If. there is a question regarding the surface condition of the weld when. interpreting a radiographic film, the film shall be compared to the actual weld. surface for determination of acceptability.

Digital radiology may be the greatest technological advancement in medical imaging in the last decade. Patients and staff need to be protected from ionizing radiation.

» Can I perform angiographic procedures with a digital radiography X-ray unit?. The most common solution is to use CR (computed radiography) with mobile x-ray systems, but there are already mobile X-ray units with a digital detector (called 'flat panel detector' integrated on it) commercially available in the market.. Try also to find the image by the identification number of the patient.. It is not easy to recognize by viewing the digital image the exposure parameters employed.. It is possible to process the image or adjust the display in many situations so as to make it good for diagnosis.. But there may be situations where some relevant areas of the image are saturated (the pixel content has the maximum value).. » How may I know the number of series and the number of images acquired during a procedure when a digital fluoroscopy system has been used?. Another tag indicates the number of images acquired in every series.. The only retrospective information that could be obtained is the number of series 'non archived' before the one existing in the PACS, e.g. if the archived series is the number 3, two other series were obtained before and not archived.

This article will go into detail the whole of B1, Medicine Through Time which includes (you are more than welcome to skip to the parts most relevant to

This article will go into detail the whole of B1, Medicine Through Time which includes (you are more than welcome to skip to the parts most relevant to you) Hippocrates and the four humours, Galen, why people still believed in Galen by 1348 and the fall of Rome, why people were reading Galen in 1350, the plague (Black Death), cause of the plague, what people thought caused the plague, how effective people were in dealing with the plague, doctors of medical renaissance including Ambroise Pare, William Harvey and Andreas Vesalius and how they came up with their medical theories, did medicine get better after the dark ages, hospitals and training of doctors in 1350-1750, Edward Jenner and Vaccination, inoculation and smallpox, why life expectancy decreased in 19th century London, John Snow and cholera, Louis Pasteur’s germ theory and Robert Koch, magic bullets, Florence Nightingale vs Elizabeth Garrett, discovery of DNA, how science effected medicine in early 1900s, discovery and development of penicillin and the government role in medical care or the NHS.. The Barbarians destroyed lots of good medical ideas such as the Roman Public Health system.. The Church thought Galen was right and all other doctors were wrong,.. The Church liked Galen’s idea of God ‘designing’ the human body.. What People in 1348 thought caused the Black DeathHere we have 6 different theories in which people thought caused the Black Death.. Three men helped to come up with new medical theories or ideas.. Showed women could work.. Pasteur’s germ theory or DNA?. Radiotherapy – When radiation (X-rays or gamma rays) are used to kill cells in the body i.e. tumours.Radiography – The method by which we can see objects inside the body without cutting someone open.. People had to pay for doctors or medicines.. The government needed to improve medical care after the war.


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